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Coral and Seagrass Grounding Experience

Highlighted Projects

Helicopter Photo of WAKASHIO

M/V WAKASHIO – Mauritius, 2020

Polaris supported salvage efforts for the assessment of reef damage and environmental considerations for removal of the bulk carrier M/V WAKASHIO in Mauritius in 2020.  Polaris divers spent several months survey many hectares of reef around the vessel and in the lagoon where impacts ranged from excavation, rubble burial, damage from boom placement and response vessels.

M/V Antares – Tuxpan, Mexico, 2018

Polaris completed coral reef reconstruction and restoration of an approximately 4,000 square meter damaged site following the grounding of the large ferry vessel M/V ANTARES on Arrecife Tuxpan. Coral reef sections were broken and many corals detached or fractured. Polaris floated and reattached broken reef sections that had washed inshore in winter storms to recreate the offshore reef structure flattened by the vessel grounding. Reef sections were cemented prior to coral attachment. Damaged corals remaining were reattached and additional at-risk corals in fishing-damaged areas were relocated as part of the restoration effort.    Polaris is currently working with the Mexican authorities (CONANP)SEMERNAT/PROFEPA) to incorporate the methods used by Polaris as guidelines for training programs for reef restoration in Mexico. The techniques and methods used are like those for the Piers and Cargo Facilities.

DCIM100GOPROGOPR1476.JPG
KEA TRADER

Kia Trader

Provided initial in-water assessment and subsequently retained by TMC Marine to assist with wreck removal planning, environmental assessment and mitigation for the grounding on Durand Reef in New Caledonia.

M/V SEVILLA KNUTSEN – Federated States of Micronesia, 2017

Polaris surveyed coral damage from the grounding of the LNG SEVILLA KNUTSEN in Eauripik, Federated States of Micronesia. Polaris surveyed the coral damages, assessed recovery and the value of damages using a cost of restoration approach and other valuation techniques. Polaris scientists provided expert testimony at trial in Singapore.

diver working on the SEVILLA KNUTSEN
Coral reef in Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands
Coral reef in Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands

M/V SAGA – Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, 2016-2017

Polaris conducted restoration of injuries to coral reef resources in an approximate 700 m2 area of the Eden Rock North reef in the West Bay Marine Park from December 2016 through February 2017 following the grounding of the cargo vessel M/V SAGA.  The site is a popular dive and snorkel site and is visible to many thousands of visitors each year.  Polaris conducted reef structural repair and coral reattachment within an area affected by physical impacts of the hull. Restoration efforts included 38 days and approximately 750 man hours of underwater work.  The reef was cleared of loose debris determined to pose a risk to other benthic organisms and/or divers and all rubble created by the injury was cemented on-site to fill fractures, restore rugosity and structure and provide substrate for reattachment of dislodged corals and other epibenthic organisms.  An estimated 41,200 lbs. of cement were used to reconstruct the reef and stabilize over 19 tons of rubble.  More than 2,400 hard and soft corals and coral fragments were reattached.  The assessment data indicate return of structure and available live coral to the site were initially successful.  The successful restoration indicated by the post-restoration assessment are uncommon compared to many ship groundings on coral. The site will be monitored by DoE for reattached coral survival and growth and future site stability and coral recruitment.

M/V CAPE FLATTERY – Barbers Pt. Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, 2005

The bulk carrier CAPE FLATTERY grounded near the entrance channel to Barbers Point Harbor, west Oahu, Hawaii in 2005.  This incident resulted in hull and cable damage injury, as well as smothering by dry cement cargo over 60,000 m2 of a variety of reef habitat including shelf pavement, escarpment and deep slope habitats.  Polaris utilized local boats and divers during more than three weeks of restoration work.   Restoration efforts involved stabilization of an estimated 45 tons of rubble, removal of nearly 100 tons of rubble offshore and relocation and re-attachment of over 2,000 corals.

Scuba for M/V CAPE FLATTERY

MAR Fund Coral Grounding and Restoration Protocol, 2020

Polaris developed vessel grounding response and reinstatement or primary restoration protocol for the Mesoamerican Reef Fund (MAR Fund) established for the protection of the coral reefs in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico.  MAR Fund is a private fund with a Board of Directors comprised of international collaborators, experts, the Central American Commission on Environment and Development (CCAD), and the in-country funds from each of the Mesoamerican Reef countries – Protected Areas Conservation Trust (Belize), Fundación para la Conservación de los Recursos Naturales y Ambiente en Guatemala (FCG), Fundación Biósfera (Honduras), and Fondo Mexicano para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (Mexico).  Polaris provided vessel response and restoration alternatives protocol based on our on-site attendance or involvement in over 100 large vessel groundings on coral, including 10 incidents in the Mesoamerican region.

Related Projects (*Includes NRDA)

Project Location
TRESTA STAR Réunion
ENDEAVOR Venezuela
HWA GWO No. 6 Tomil, Yap
StarKist Coral Reef Assessment American Samoa
EVER FORWARD Chesapeake Bay, MD
SEA EAGLE Deerfield Beach, FL
WAKASHIO Mauritius
ASIA PEARL IV Indonesia
ULTRA TRUST Indonesia
OU YA LENG 6 Marshall Islands
PELAGIC EXPRESS Ft. Lauderdale, FL *
Vigor dry dock Half Moon Bay, California *
MARSHALL 201 Marshall Islands
CENTAURUS DREAM Indonesia
DORA SCHULTE Indonesia
KEA TRADER New Caledonia
Pipeline Coral Mitigation Oahu, HI *
ANATARES Tuxpan, Mexico
SEVILLA KNUTSEN Yap
WEISSHORN Fort Lauderdale, FL
CFS PAGOLA Belize
BARBARA CAROL ANN MORAN Fort Lauderdale, FL
VLCC ALEX Indonesia
GLOBAL URANUS Indonesia
SAGA Cayman Islands
SAM WOLFE Honduras
NGOC SON Fuvahmulah, Maldives
Reef Restoration Cayman Islands
MV TAMMO Kwajalein Atoll, Rep. of the Marshall Islands
SGT. MATEJ KOCAK Okinawa, Japan
PAPILLON DES MERS Pinel Island, St. Martin
PAUL RUSS Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands
STADT ROTENBURG Fort Lauderdale, FL
FORMOSA FALCON Bahamas
SSI VICTORY Jazan, Saudi Arabia
UAL GABON Fort Lauderdale, FL
CROWN OPAL St. Maarten *
TROPIC SUN Tortola, BVI *
MELLSENTOSA Yap *
CHEMTRANS ALSTER Tuxpan, Mexico
SEMINOLE PRINCESS Indonesia
SHEN NENG I Gladstone, Australia
M/V ANGELN Vieux Fort, St. Lucia
VOGETRADER Oahu, Hawaii*
MATTHEW Guayanilla, Puerto Rico*
VINALINES SKY Indonesia
M/V PORT STEWART Yabucoa, Puerto Rico*
WO BUDMO Taiwan
HARNS Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic
M/V BREITHORN Port Esquivel, Jamaica
SICHEM AMETHYST St. Croix, VI*
SICHEM PRINCESS MARIE CHANTAL Tortola, BVI
WESTERHAVEN Belize, Mexico
CEMBAY Cancun, Mexico*
MARGARA Guayanilla, Puerto Rico
FICUS Goulding Cay, Bahamas*
SCF TOMSK San Pedro, DR*
GREEN CHILI Dry Tortugas, FL*
LA CONCHA/AM215 Cancun, Mexico*
APL PANAMA Ensenada, Mexico
Caribbean Tug & Barge Dominican Republic*
CLIPPER LASCO Fort Lauderdale, FL*
SPERCHIOUS Guayanilla, Puerto Rico*
CASITAS Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Midway Islands*
CAPE FLATTERY Honolulu, HI *
SEA CLOUD St. Croix, USVI *
PESCA NOSTRA St. John, USVI *
M/V PURITAN Fort Lauderdale, FL*
MICRONESIAN HERITAGE Yap*
KYOWA VIOLET Yap*
KENT RELIANT San Juan, Puerto Rico*
PAULA KAY Veracruz, Mexico*
M/V AMORGOS Lungkeng, Taiwan*
PAULINA St. Eustatius, Netherland Antilles *
RUBIN Veracruz, Mexico *
MISTRAL St. Kitts & Nevis, West Indies *
PACIFIC FALCON Koror, Palau *
ALLIE B Key Biscayne, FL *
KAPITAN EGOROV Puerto Rico *
AUTHOR Puerto Rico *
LEEWARD Cancun, Mexico *
PROFITIS ELIAS Veracruz, Mexico *
FORTUNA REEFER Puerto Rico *
GEANIE G Petit Bois Island, MI *
FIRAT Ft. Lauderdale, FL *
CAPTAIN JOE Florida Keys *
OCEANUS Satawal Island, Yap *

Highlighted Projects

Helicopter Photo of WAKASHIO

M/V WAKASHIO – Mauritius, 2020

Polaris supported salvage efforts for the assessment of reef damage and environmental considerations for removal of the bulk carrier M/V WAKASHIO in Mauritius in 2020.  Polaris divers spent several months survey many hectares of reef around the vessel and in the lagoon where impacts ranged from excavation, rubble burial, damage from boom placement and response vessels.

DCIM100GOPROGOPR1476.JPG

M/V Antares – Tuxpan, Mexico, 2018

Polaris completed coral reef reconstruction and restoration of an approximately 4,000 square meter damaged site following the grounding of the large ferry vessel M/V ANTARES on Arrecife Tuxpan. Coral reef sections were broken and many corals detached or fractured. Polaris floated and reattached broken reef sections that had washed inshore in winter storms to recreate the offshore reef structure flattened by the vessel grounding. Reef sections were cemented prior to coral attachment. Damaged corals remaining were reattached and additional at-risk corals in fishing-damaged areas were relocated as part of the restoration effort.    Polaris is currently working with the Mexican authorities (CONANP)SEMERNAT/PROFEPA) to incorporate the methods used by Polaris as guidelines for training programs for reef restoration in Mexico. The techniques and methods used are like those for the Piers and Cargo Facilities.

KEA TRADER

Kia Trader

Provided initial in-water assessment and subsequently retained by TMC Marine to assist with wreck removal planning, environmental assessment and mitigation for the grounding on Durand Reef in New Caledonia.

diver working on the SEVILLA KNUTSEN

M/V SEVILLA KNUTSEN – Federated States of Micronesia, 2017

Polaris surveyed coral damage from the grounding of the LNG SEVILLA KNUTSEN in Eauripik, Federated States of Micronesia. Polaris surveyed the coral damages, assessed recovery and the value of damages using a cost of restoration approach and other valuation techniques. Polaris scientists provided expert testimony at trial in Singapore.

Coral reef in Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands
Coral reef in Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands

M/V SAGA – Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, 2016-2017

Polaris conducted restoration of injuries to coral reef resources in an approximate 700 m2 area of the Eden Rock North reef in the West Bay Marine Park from December 2016 through February 2017 following the grounding of the cargo vessel M/V SAGA.  The site is a popular dive and snorkel site and is visible to many thousands of visitors each year.  Polaris conducted reef structural repair and coral reattachment within an area affected by physical impacts of the hull. Restoration efforts included 38 days and approximately 750 man hours of underwater work.  The reef was cleared of loose debris determined to pose a risk to other benthic organisms and/or divers and all rubble created by the injury was cemented on-site to fill fractures, restore rugosity and structure and provide substrate for reattachment of dislodged corals and other epibenthic organisms.  An estimated 41,200 lbs. of cement were used to reconstruct the reef and stabilize over 19 tons of rubble.  More than 2,400 hard and soft corals and coral fragments were reattached.  The assessment data indicate return of structure and available live coral to the site were initially successful.  The successful restoration indicated by the post-restoration assessment are uncommon compared to many ship groundings on coral. The site will be monitored by DoE for reattached coral survival and growth and future site stability and coral recruitment.

Scuba for M/V CAPE FLATTERY

M/V CAPE FLATTERY – Barbers Pt. Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, 2005

The bulk carrier CAPE FLATTERY grounded near the entrance channel to Barbers Point Harbor, west Oahu, Hawaii in 2005.  This incident resulted in hull and cable damage injury, as well as smothering by dry cement cargo over 60,000 m2 of a variety of reef habitat including shelf pavement, escarpment and deep slope habitats.  Polaris utilized local boats and divers during more than three weeks of restoration work.   Restoration efforts involved stabilization of an estimated 45 tons of rubble, removal of nearly 100 tons of rubble offshore and relocation and re-attachment of over 2,000 corals.

MAR Fund Coral Grounding and Restoration Protocol, 2020

Polaris developed vessel grounding response and reinstatement or primary restoration protocol for the Mesoamerican Reef Fund (MAR Fund) established for the protection of the coral reefs in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico.  MAR Fund is a private fund with a Board of Directors comprised of international collaborators, experts, the Central American Commission on Environment and Development (CCAD), and the in-country funds from each of the Mesoamerican Reef countries – Protected Areas Conservation Trust (Belize), Fundación para la Conservación de los Recursos Naturales y Ambiente en Guatemala (FCG), Fundación Biósfera (Honduras), and Fondo Mexicano para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (Mexico).  Polaris provided vessel response and restoration alternatives protocol based on our on-site attendance or involvement in over 100 large vessel groundings on coral, including 10 incidents in the Mesoamerican region.

Related Projects (* inclides NRDA)

Project Location
EVER FORWARD Chesapeake Bay, MD
SEA EAGLE Deerfield Beach, FL
WAKASHIO Mauritius
ASIA PEARL IV Indonesia
ULTRA TRUST Indonesia
OU YA LENG 6 Marshall Islands
PELAGIC EXPRESS Ft. Lauderdale, FL *
Vigor dry dock Half Moon Bay, California *
MARSHALL 201 Marshall Islands
CENTAURUS DREAM Indonesia
DORA SCHULTE Indonesia
KEA TRADER New Caledonia
Pipeline Coral Mitigation Oahu, HI *
ANATARES Tuxpan, Mexico
SEVILLA KNUTSEN Yap
WEISSHORN Fort Lauderdale, FL
CFS PAGOLA Belize
BARBARA CAROL ANN MORAN Fort Lauderdale, FL
VLCC ALEX Indonesia
GLOBAL URANUS Indonesia
SAGA Cayman Islands
SAM WOLFE Honduras
NGOC SON Fuvahmulah, Maldives
Reef Restoration Cayman Islands
MV TAMMO Kwajalein Atoll, Rep. of the Marshall Islands
SGT. MATEJ KOCAK Okinawa, Japan
PAPILLON DES MERS Pinel Island, St. Martin
PAUL RUSS Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands
STADT ROTENBURG Fort Lauderdale, FL
FORMOSA FALCON Bahamas
SSI VICTORY Jazan, Saudi Arabia
UAL GABON Fort Lauderdale, FL
CROWN OPAL St. Maarten *
TROPIC SUN Tortola, BVI *
MELLSENTOSA Yap *
CHEMTRANS ALSTER Tuxpan, Mexico
SEMINOLE PRINCESS Indonesia
SHEN NENG I Gladstone, Australia
M/V ANGELN Vieux Fort, St. Lucia
VOGETRADER Oahu, Hawaii*
MATTHEW Guayanilla, Puerto Rico*
VINALINES SKY Indonesia
M/V PORT STEWART Yabucoa, Puerto Rico*
WO BUDMO Taiwan
HARNS Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic
M/V BREITHORN Port Esquivel, Jamaica
SICHEM AMETHYST St. Croix, VI*
SICHEM PRINCESS MARIE CHANTAL Tortola, BVI
WESTERHAVEN Belize, Mexico
CEMBAY Cancun, Mexico*
MARGARA Guayanilla, Puerto Rico
FICUS Goulding Cay, Bahamas*
SCF TOMSK San Pedro, DR*
GREEN CHILI Dry Tortugas, FL*
LA CONCHA/AM215 Cancun, Mexico*
APL PANAMA Ensenada, Mexico
Caribbean Tug & Barge Dominican Republic*
CLIPPER LASCO Fort Lauderdale, FL*
SPERCHIOUS Guayanilla, Puerto Rico*
CASITAS Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Midway Islands*
CAPE FLATTERY Honolulu, HI *
SEA CLOUD St. Croix, USVI *
PESCA NOSTRA St. John, USVI *
M/V PURITAN Fort Lauderdale, FL*
MICRONESIAN HERITAGE Yap*
KYOWA VIOLET Yap*
KENT RELIANT San Juan, Puerto Rico*
PAULA KAY Veracruz, Mexico*
M/V AMORGOS Lungkeng, Taiwan*
PAULINA St. Eustatius, Netherland Antilles *
RUBIN Veracruz, Mexico *
MISTRAL St. Kitts & Nevis, West Indies *
PACIFIC FALCON Koror, Palau *
ALLIE B Key Biscayne, FL *
KAPITAN EGOROV Puerto Rico *
AUTHOR Puerto Rico *
LEEWARD Cancun, Mexico *
PROFITIS ELIAS Veracruz, Mexico *
FORTUNA REEFER Puerto Rico *
GEANIE G Petit Bois Island, MI *
FIRAT Ft. Lauderdale, FL *
CAPTAIN JOE Florida Keys *
OCEANUS Satawal Island, Yap *